Mhemberero uye zano re swan Lake ballet

2020/11/09

Tchaikovsky akamboreurura kuti akakurudzirwa Swan Lake nekushomeka kwemari uye chishuwo chenguva refu chekunyora balletmusic, ndosaka takakokwa kuti titeerere kune ballet inozivikanwa kwazvo nguva dzese. Iyi albam naDutwall yakaitisa iyo Montreal Symphony Orchestrarecording, kujekesa kukuru, zvine simba, ichava swan Lake inopenya gorgeouscolor performance zvisingaite uye zvakajeka. Inzwi racho rakasvibira, ruzha rwakachena, mabass akapfuma mukusimba, izwi repakati rakatsetseka, iro trebleis rakanaka.


Muna 1871, ava nemakore makumi matatu nemasere, Tchaikovsky akauya kuzogara nehanzvadzi yake. Sekuru vakanaka, akafunga kupa muzukuru akanaka chipo chakakosha - sekureva kwevana kuverenga muimbi wechiGerman mo mugodhi uzfairy tale "iro dziva" (nzira yekukunda nayo dhiabhori ndeye yeusiku husiku, akanunurwa nemusikana musikana mumashini , akazoroora nyaya yake) uye nekugadzira DuMu ballet mumhanzi. Muna 1875, shamwari yemunyori Uye director wehunyanzvi weBolshoi, V Bygichev, akakoka Tchaikovsky kuti aumbe mimhanzi yeLakeLake, mutambo mukuru wekutamba, achivimbisa kumubhadharira maRuble mazana masere kana akadaro. ForTchaikovsky, uyo anodzidzisa paMoscow Conservatory pamubhadharo wemakore 1,500 chete pagore, iri chokwadi nhamba huru. Kunze kwezvo, chokwadi, chishuwo chekuedza kushinga mumunda we ballet zvakare ndicho chakamukurudzira kuti agamuchire komisheni.


Asati azvipira kunyora Swan Lake, Tchaikovsky akadzidza zvine hungwaru mimhanzi yezvimhanzi zvemazuva ano (senge mabasa aDrib), uye achiwanzoenda kumitambo yeatballet munhandare uye aiona hunhu hwevatambi. Ayear gare gare, munaKurume 1876, munyori akapedzisa piano mamaki emitambo yechina, uye kuridza kwakapedziswa musi waApril 20. Mushure mekupihwa basa, Tchaikovsky akashuvira maBolshoi kuti arape zvibodzwa zvake zve ballet neruremekedzo rwakafanana seorchestra aibata symphony dzake. Asi Iye wechiGerman akapihwa kunyora uye kunongedza Swan Lake, Zhu Rezinger, iri mhando yepakati. Kwaari, Tchaikovsky's Swan Lake yaitaridzika kunge "symphonic" zvekuti aisaziva kutamba nayo. Kune kuravira kweiyo heroine kabakova (iyo swan swan Lake yakatanga kuitirwa seyakakosha kuita mukumukudza), ivo vakatora nzvimbo yavo yekutanga yaTchaikovsky nemumhanzi wakamboimbwa waizivikanwa nemunhu wese, kuti vafadze vamwe vanhu.

Kuita kwekutanga kweSwan Lake, muna Kukadzi 20,1877, kwakaodza moyo wese, asi kunyanya kumunyori. Munyori Laroche akaona mutambo uyu ndokuti, "Handisati ndamboona kuita kwakaipisisa padariro renhandare hombe ... Mapfekero, zvinoyevedza nemhedzisiro hazvigone kuvanza kusakosha kweiyo nhanho. Hapana fan fan ye ballet anogona kuinakidzwa maminetsi mashanu apfuura." Munyori akaora mwoyo, asi nekuzvininipisa akataura kuti kukundikana kune mimhanzi yake yakaipa, uye akati akaronga kunyora zvakare mimhanzi yeSwan Lake, asi basa iri harina kuitwa kusvikira munyori achinge afa kamwe kamwe munaNovember 1893.

Musi waNdira 15, 1895, vatenzi vaviri vekuumba nekutungamira, Pietypa naIvanov, vakanyorazve uye vakatungamira Swan Lake nekuti ivo vakanyatsonzwisisa uye vakashandisa mutauro wakatanhamara wemumhanzi waTchaikovsky, mutambo wacho wakabudirira zvikuru. PI Lenani, iye anozivikanwa mutambi weballet weItaly, airidza iwo maviri mabasa aAujetta naAugiria. Anoratidzira zvinangwa zvechochoographer nekunzwa kwake kwakapfava, kufamba kwekutamba kwakareruka, kutsungirira kwakasimba uye nehunyanzvi hwakakwana. Mukuchinja kwaAugira's solo akanyorwa mune yechitatu chiito lenaney akaita, mukufema kumwe, makumi matatu nemaviri Fawettes (zvichireva kurova chikwapuro, negumbo rimwe richigara richizungunuka sechikwapuro, uye munhu achingotenderera achitsigirwa neumwe), a feat iyo ichiri kuitwa muSwan Lake. Kubva ipapo, Swan Lake haina kumbobvira yasiya nyika balletstage uye yakave hunyanzvi hunodiwa nevanhu vese.


Tchaikovsky ainyanya kufarira chiUkraine chitubu uye matsutso, uye ainyanya kuda hunhu saBeethoven neBrahms. Rudzi rweRussia runobudirira uye rwakanaka rwakamupa ruchiva umo maaigara achingwarira kutora zvimwe zvinhu kuti apedzise basa rake. Pakati paJune naJuly muna 1872, Tchaikovsky akasvika muUkraine ava nemakore makumi matatu nemaviri uye akagara nehanzvadzi yaKaminka. Vana vevanin'ina vake vaimuda, nekuti aive asina vana uye aivada, uye vana babamunini vaimutora sababamunini vavo vaanodisisa. Aigara achitamba nevana vake munguva yake yekusununguka, uye kudziya kwepamba kwakanyaradza moyo wake wakasurukirwa. Pane imwe nguva, akanyora zvishoma mimhanzi ye ballet yevana vanonzi "Swan Lake," yaive yakavakirwa mungano yeMiddle Ages yeGerman, asi yakazove prototype yerwiyo rwemberi rwakakurumbira "SwanLake."

Makore matatu gare gare, muna Chivabvu 1875, ava nemakore makumi matatu nemashanu, Tchaikovsky akapihwa basa naManejimendi yeMoscow Royal Theatre ine mimhanzi ye ballet. Kunyangwe ichi chiri chirevo chete, pamwe haana kubvunzwa kuti anyore Swan Lake panguva iyoyo, asi akangobvunza, "Unofungei nezvevechidiki, une mimhanzi ye ballet? ..." "Saka Tchaikovsky akatora chidzidzo ichi swan Lake, iyo anga anyora makore matatu zvisati zvaitika. " Heino aballet izere nefantasy, kwakanaka here? "Ehezve, uku kungori kufunga kwangu. Gare gare, chibvumirano chakasainwa zviri pamutemo. Tchaikovsky akagamuchira chibvumirano che800 rubles kunyora chidimbu. Musi wa Gunyana 10, 1875, akanyorera munyori weRussia Rimsky Kosakov, achinyatsotaura zvaainzwa panguva iyoyo: "Kunyangwe chimwe chezvikonzero ndakabvuma Chibvumirano cheSwan Lake chaive chekuita mari; Asi ini ndanga ndichida kuedza ruoko rwangu kuti Yakanga iri nguva yake yekutanga kuimba nziyo dze ballet, uye akagadzirira zvine mutsindo, akakwereta zvibodzwa kubva muraibhurari yemitambo uye achidzidza nokungwarira. Akanyanya kuongorora Adam's Giselle. yehunyanzvi hwaTchaikovsky, ingori mimhanzi ye ballet kune yaimboita ballet ichienderana nehurefu hwounyanzvi, iyi ndiyo "Gisele" munhoroondo yezvakakodzera. Chainyanya kufadza Tchaikovsky yaive yekushandisa zvine hungwaru dingindira mumumhanzi weGisele nemhedzisiro. Mukuita kwekudzidza zvibodzwa zvaGisele, Tchaikovsky akauya nechishuwo chekudarika avo vakamutangira. Muna Nyamavhuvhu wegore iro, Tchaikovsky akatanga kunyora. Akatora zororo pakati ndokupedzisa kunyora paAp. ril 10 yegore rakatevera. Swan Lake yakatanga kuitirwa kuMoscow Royal Theatre muna Kukadzi 20, 1877. Asi kuratidzwa kweballet ikozvino kwakakurumbira pasirese kwaive kusingashamisike-ine misoro-ine misoro, uye yaive. Saka choreography uye marongero zvaityisa, kunyanya kutamba kwakashata kweanotungamira ballerinas, izvo zvakakonzera kukundikana kwekuvhura kuita.


Icho chirevo cheiyo theballet Swan Lake iri seinotevera:

Chekutanga chiito

Chidzitiro chakasimudzwa mumashoko ekutanga akanaka, uye pachikuva paive nebindu rakanaka rakaputirwa nemiti yakasvibira, iine nhare yakaisvonaka kumashure. Prince Siegfried anotendeuka makore makumi maviri. Kuchava nemhemberero huru mangwana, uye nhasi kuchave nemutambo unofadza mumahombekombe enhare. Madhiri newaini zvakaunganidzwa patafura. Muchinda akatamba achifara, akakomberedzwa nemudzidzisi wake Wolfgang neshamwari yake Binno, nemajaya aya nevasikana vemusha. Ipapo mai vahosi vakaoneka ndokuti kumuchinda, "Iwe haufanire kutamba zvakanyanya zuva rose. Mangwana pakuuya kwako kwezera rezera, koka machindakadzi kubva kumatunhu ese, uye sarudza ramangwana rako mambo." Muchinda akabvuma achizeza, uye mambokadzi akarega basa nekugutsikana. Mufundisi akaziva kuti achakurumidza kusiya hujaya hwake hwemahara, uye pakarepo moyo wake nekunyemwerera kwake kwakanyangarika. Binno akaziva kuti muchinda haana kubhadhara mutero, uye kuti achinje moyo wake, akabva aunza waini ndokutanga kufara. Vagari vemumisha waltz uye nhanho zvishoma nezvishoma inopenya. Nenguva isipi mutambo wakapera, zuva rakanga ranyura, uye muchinda akarasika mupfungwa. Binnoand saka pane vana kana vashanu vechidiki kukoka muchinda kunovhima, muchinda zvakare akanyemwerera, uye vakaenda kunovhima pamwe chete.


Chechipiri chiito


Dziva racho raiyevedza mumwenje waro wemwedzi, uye svetuka dzinoyevedza dzaitenderera pamusoro pegungwa. Vakava vasikana vadiki mumwe neumwe mushure mekumhara pamahombekombe. Muchokwadi, ivo vakashandurwa kuita swans nemashiripiti kubva kuna dhiyabhorosi Rotbald. Ivo vanoressa masikati, uye vakatora mafomu avo enyama husiku chete pagungwa. Ipapo PrinceSiegfried akapinda nouta nemuseve, uye paakanangana neswan nekorona, hanzva yakava musikana akanaka pamberi pemuchinda. Akataura kuti iye ndiye sahosi mambokadzi Ojeta, aive mambokadzi wamambo, aive dhiabhori Rotbald mashiripiti muhove, asi husiku chete kudzoreredza chimiro chemunhu. Zvakare, swans dzakayerera dzichienda kudziva iri vaive vasikana vakatambura nhamo imwechete saiye. Muchinda akavhunduka. Muchinda akateerera Tale yenhamo yeshongwe, achipfuura kubva pakunzwira tsitsi kukuru kuenda mukuyemura. Zvichakadaro, Ojeta anoudza muchinda kuti rudo chairwo runodikanwa kuti mashiripiti aputswe. Muchinda akapika kuzivisa kubatanidzwa kwake kuna Ojeta pamabiko ezera ramangwana. Thedevil Rotbald anotarisa murima, achinyemwerera zvinotyisa. Munguva pfupi, TheOriental chena yekuonekana nemuchinda weThe Tower nevasikana, uye dhiabhori Rotbald akachinja kuita swans.


Chiito chechitatu

Iyo yakamirirwa-refu kumuchinda kuuya-kwe-zera kupemberera. Vakakokwa nhume nevakuru vematare vakaungana muhoro yemauto. Muchinda naamai vahosi vanotora nzvimbo dzavo. Ipapo mwanasikana wamambo akanaka anobva kunyika nhanhatu anokokwa. Asi paingova naOjeta chete mundangariro dzemuchinda. Asi dhimoni Rottbald rinoratidza pamwe nehozhwa swan Odette, inoshandura Odette muchimiro chaOdette, uye anonyengera muchinda, uyo anonyengedzwa kufunga kuti ndiye Odette. Bhora rakatanga nematambiro ane mavara enyika dzakasiyana. Iwo madzishe pamwe neyekunyepedzera Ojeta uye akazivisa kubatanidzwa kwake. Ojeta chena chena, uyo anga akatarisa panze nepahwindo, akachema kuchema nekuchema. Ipapo mabhanan'ana nemheni, mhepo yakarova, uye dhiabhori Rotbald nechitema Swan akaseka ndokuenda. Muchinda akatanga kuziva mukurangana, nebakatwa mushure.


Chiito chechina

Ojeta nevachena vasikana vasikana vakarasikirwa nemukana wekudzokera kunyika nekusingaperi nekuda kwekukanganisa kwemuchinda, uye vakazadzwa neshungu. Panguva iyoyo, muchinda, akabata pfumo muruoko, akauya achimhanya, akapfugama pamberi paOjeta kuti ateterere hupenzi hwake, uye zvakare akataura rudo rwake kunaOjeta, uye ndokumbundirana zvine simba, neropa nemisodzi mumaziso avo. Pakauya Thevilvil Rotbald, muchinda akavhomora munondo wake kusangana, mushure mekurwa, pakupedzisira akauraya dhiabhori. Muchinda naAujeta vanozvikanda mugungwa nekusuwa kuti havazove pamwe nekusingaperi muhupenyu huno. Ipapo strange inoonekwa uye rudo rwavo rukuru runotyora mashiripiti uye chena swansreturn kuva vasikana vakanaka vadiki.